Figure 3-4. Open Debate Rules in the House of Representatives, 1981-2016

From Committees and the Decline of Lawmaking in Congress by Jonathan Lewallen

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  • Political Science:American Politics
  • Political Science:Governance
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  • Fig. 3.4. Open Debate Rules in the House of Representatives, 1981–2016. (Source: Sinclair 2007 [97th–108th Congresses] and Congress.gov [109th–114th Congresses]; the former calculated by Donald Wolfensberger, the latter calculated by the author. The Wolfensberger calculations only refer to “restrictive” rules that include closed, modified closed, and modified open rules in the same statistic.)