• Black spruce trees, from which roots were grubbed and made into sewing materials, are plentiful in northern and northeastern forests near birch trees.

Black Spruce Trees

From Canoes: A Natural History in North America by Mark Neuzil and Norman Sims

  • The roots of black spruce trees often run for several feet in all directions and are not deeply grounded in the soul, which makes them easy to dig.
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