Source: IWM photo E3191.

From "The infantry cannot do with a gun less": the place of the artillery in the British Expeditionary Force, 1914-1918 by Sanders Marble

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  • European: 1800-present
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  • Smoke screen, near Peronne, 5 September 1918. This smoke screen is just starting, and is apparently intended to block German observation or machine-gun fire from the low hills in the distance. By 1918 there was greater flexibility in using artillery to deny the Germans a position, either by shelling the position so that machine-guns or observation posts could not function properly, or to create a smokescreen for the same purposes. Both options reflected a greater confidence in the British infantry's ability to fight with support, instead of having the artillery conquer and the infantry occupy. Source: IWM photo E3191.