Source: IWM photo Q1471.

From "The infantry cannot do with a gun less": the place of the artillery in the British Expeditionary Force, 1914-1918 by Sanders Marble

  • European: 1800-present
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  • Dump of empty shell cases, Fricourt, September 1916. These are 18-pounder shell cases, the byproducts of creeping barrages and wire-cutting. Since they were made brass, they were recycled two to four times, which is why they were collected in dumps. During 1916 the BEF fired several million 18-pounder rounds, so these cases are only a tiny fraction of the total. Source: IWM photo Q1471.