Source: Sandes, In Kut and Captivity, 1919, frontispiece.

From Pursuit of an "unparalleled opportunity": American YMCA and prisoner of war diplomacy among the Central Power nations during World War I, 1914-1923 by Kenneth Steuer

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  • American: 1900-present
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  • General Charles V. F. Townshend (1861–1924) commanded the Mesopotamia Expeditionary Force against the Turks in 1915. The Ottomans forced the British to retreat down the Tigris River to Kut-al-Amara, where the British surrendered in April 1916 after a long siege. Source: Sandes, In Kut and Captivity, 1919, frontispiece.