Source: Association Men, 46:4 (December 1920): 170.

From Pursuit of an "unparalleled opportunity": American YMCA and prisoner of war diplomacy among the Central Power nations during World War I, 1914-1923 by Kenneth Steuer

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  • American: 1900-present
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  • The Russian Civil War made the repatriation process extremely difficult for German and Austro-Hungarian POWs in Russia as well as for Russian prisoners trapped in Weimar Germany. With the western border crossings in Poland and Estonia choked off, some Central Power POW's traveled east to Vladivostok, crossed the Pacific, and sailed home over the Atlantic via the United States. These former prisoners enjoy a meal at the YMCA in Honolulu. Source: Association Men, 46:4 (December 1920): 170.