• A tray or pouch made of birch bark was used to carry hardened pieces of specially prepared spruce gum (sap mixed with animal fat and ash), which could be chewed or heated and used to repair canoes when on a trip.

Spruce Gum Pouch

From Canoes: A Natural History in North America by Mark Neuzil and Norman Sims

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  • Native American Studies
  • History
  • Cultural Studies
  • Regional Studies
  • Literature
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