Figure 1 Map of New York State in 1779 At the time of the American Revolution, the organized counties of New York hewed to the Hudson River Valley and the Atlantic Ocean. Gloucester and Cumberland Counties were soon conceded to Vermont. By 1800, New York had created twenty new counties, primarily to the west of the original counties. [Map of New York State in 1779, based on Claude Joseph Sauthier, A Chorological Map of the Province of New York . . . (London, 1779).]
Figure 2 Map of New York State in 1824 Reflecting the state's dramatic expansion, New York assumed its modern political contours during the first decades of the nineteenth century. [Map of the State of New York in 1824, based on A. Finley, Map of the State of New York (Philadelphia, 1824).]
Figure 3 Cover Page of Carter and Stone, Proceedings and Debates Cover page of Nathaniel H. Carter and William L. Stone, Reports of the Proceedings and Debates of the Convention of 1821 (Albany, 1821).
Figure 4 Seating Chart of 1821 Convention Seating chart of the 1821 convention, which met in the New York state assembly chamber in Albany. [Nathaniel H. Carter and William L. Stone, Reports of the Proceeding and Debates of the Convention of 1821 (Albany, 1821).]
Figure 5 Five Points, 1827 Pictured in 1827, the year that the final abolition of slavery in New York went into effect, New York City's Five Points neighborhood was home to many former black slaves as well as impoverished white immigrants. ["Five Points, 1827," from Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York (New York, 1855).]
Figure 6 Map of New York State in 1864 Only minor changes, making room for four counties, occurred in the internal contours of New York between the 1821 convention and the Civil War. [Map of New York State in 1864, based on J. Calvin Smith, Map of the State of New York showing the location of boundaries of counties and townships, cities, towns and villages, the courses of railroads, canals and stageroads (New York, 1862).]
Figure 7 John Street Methodist Church Manhattan's John Street Methodist Church had a large black membership in the 1790s, before African Americans, tired of discrimination, left to form their own church.
Figure 8 Cover page of Nathaniel Paul's Address Cover page of Nathaniel Paul, An Address, Delivered on the Celebration of the Abolition of Slavery, in the State of New-York, July 5, 1827 (Albany, 1827).
Figure 10 Parade of African American Troops Less than a year after the Draft Riots targeted New York City's black community, the African American Twentieth Infantry paraded in front of Manhattan's Union League Club on March 5, 1864. [From Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, March 26, 1864.]
Figure 11 Portrait of Sojourner Truth Portrait of abolitionist crusader Sojourner Truth, 1864. Pictured here in her sixties, the former Ulster County, New York, slave continued to advocate for African American and women's rights.
Figure 12 Fifteenth Amendment Celebration New York City's African American community took to the streets to celebrate the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment and its promise of voting rights to adult male citizens regardless of color. From Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, April 30, 1870.
Figure 13 Swearing-in of U.S. Marshals Swearing-in of federal deputy marshals—white and black—on October 28, 1870. Eleven days later, these officials would help oversee the first equal manhood suffrage election in New York's history. From Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, November 19, 1870.
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