From Chapter 6
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Kafka's Zoopoetics: Beyond the Human-Animal BarrierNaama Harel 2020
Kafka's animals typically stand at the threshold between humanity and animality, fusing together human and nonhuman features. Among his liminal creatures we find a human transformed into vermin (in "The Metamorphosis"), an ape turned into a human being (in "A Report to an Academy"), talking jackals (in "Jackals and Arabs"), a philosophical dog (in "Researches of a Dog"), a contemplative mole-like creature (in "The Burrow"), and indiscernible beings (in "Josefine, the Singer or the Mouse People"). Depicting species boundaries as mutable and obscure, Kafka creates a fluid human-animal space, which can be described as "humanimal." The constitution of a humanimal space radically undermines the stark barrier between human and other animals, dictated by the anthropocentric paradigm. Through denying animalistic elements in humans, and disavowing the agency of nonhuman animals, excluding them from social life, and neutralizing compassion for them, this barrier has been designed to regularize both humanity and animality. The contextualization of Kafka's animals within posthumanist theory engenders a post-anthropocentric arena, which is simultaneously both imagined and very real.