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The Automobile and Urban Transit: The Formation of Public Policy in Chicago, 1900-1930

Paul Barrett

Exploring the introduction of automobiles and public transit lines in Chicago, Paul Barrett traces contemporary commuter dissatisfactions to disjointed policies that kept urban planners from integrating separate modes of transporation into a single system.

Building the American Highway System: Engineers as Policy Makers

Bruce E. Seely

The Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) has played a central role in the development of public roads and the national highway system in the United States. From an initial concern for farm-to-market roads, to a focus on a federal-aid system of primary and secondary highways, to its final concern for a network of high-speed intercity expressways, federal highway engineers have acted as the arbiters of American highway development. Seely investigates the influence that the BPR established from 1890 through 1956 a probing account of an instance where science prevailed over democracy, essentially because Americans were confident that the engineers could resolve even the most complex problems.

Democratizing Innovation

Eric von Hippel

Innovation is rapidly becoming democratized. Users, aided by improvements in computer and communications technology, increasingly can develop their own new products and services. These innovating users—both individuals and firms—often freely share their innovations with others, creating user-innovation communities and a rich intellectual commons. In Democratizing Innovation, the author looks closely at this emerging system of user-centered innovation. He explains why and when users find it profitable to develop new products and services for themselves, and why it often pays users to reveal their innovations freely for the use of all. The trend toward democratized innovation can be seen in software and information products—most notably in the free and open-source software movement—but also in physical products. Von Hippel's many examples of user innovation in action range from surgical equipment to surfboards to software security features. He shows that product and service development is concentrated among "lead users," who are ahead on marketplace trends and whose innovations are often commercially attractive.

The Electric City: Energy and the Growth of the Chicago Area, 1880-1930

Harold L. Platt

No symbol of progress in our century is more galvanizing than electricity—electric power and the technology it has spawned. The "invisible world" of electric energy that was emerging at the turn of the century is one we take for granted, but its influence on the growth and quality of city life was, and remains, profound. Using Chicago as a test case, Harold L. Platt investigates the emergence of an urban-based, energy-intensive society over the course of half a century in this first book-length history of energy use in the city.

Feasts and Riot: Revelry, Rebellion, and Popular Consciousness on the Swahili Coast, 1856-1888

Jonathon Glassman

A botched attempt by German adventures to conquer Muslim towns on the East African coast in 1888 led to a political dilemma that led to the collapse of civil authority in Swahili Towns. Feasts and Riot explores events leading up to the crisis, examining the nature of class conflict and popular consciousness in precolonial Africa.

Folklorist of the Coal Fields: George Korson's Life and Work

Angus K. Gillespie

A biography starting with Korson's three years as a reporter on the Wilkes-Barre Record after his graduation from high school in that city, his two years with the Jewish Legion in Palestine and Egypt during World War I, and his single year at Columbia University. Then come his studies of mining folklore —both in the eastern Pennsylvania anthracite fields and in the bituminous fields of the South and Midwest—while he worked as a reporter in Pottsville and Allentown, PA., in New Jersey, and as chief editor of Red Cross publications. Korson's intellectual outlook is shown as two-sided: on one hand, an understanding that folklore is best presented in the holistic context of a community's way of life; on the other, a conviction that reform is more congruent with American social ideals than revolution.

Lake Erie Fishermen: Work, Identity, and Tradition

Timothy C. Lloyd and Patrick B. Mullen

Timothy C. Lloyd and Patrick B. Mullen began their fieldwork in March 1983 and ended it in September 1985. They spent a total of twelve weeks on or along the Lake, observing, interviewing and documenting the work of commercial fishermen on fishing boats, at shore seining sites, at local fish wholesale houses and at leisure in restaurants, VFW halls, bars, and at kitchen tables. They interviewed active and retired fishermen, members of their families, wholesale distributors, State of Ohio biologists and wildlife enforcement agents. They were lucky enough be able to document the techniques and customs of gill-net fishing before it was prohibited by state regulation a year ago. They found active verbal, material and customary traditions shared among local fishermen, through which the culture and identity of this group are expressed.

The Making of Bamana Sculpture: Creativity and Gender

Sarah C. Brett-Smith

The Making of Bamana Sculpture describes both the techniques and the rituals used by Bamana blacksmiths in Mali, West Africa, when they carve sacred sculpture. Chronicling the process of decision-making that results in a commission, it provides a detailed account of the carving process and also analyses the meaning of this process. Sarah Brett-Smith demonstrates that Bamana sculptors compare the process of producing a ritual object both to sexual intercourse and to childbirth. Her study details how Bamana sculptors become 'great' artists, how this process requires a shift from a 'male' to a 'female' gender identity, and why the Bamana believe that the ambitious artist must make tragic sacrifices to win renown.

The Merchant of Art: An Egyptian Hilali Oral Epic Poet in Performance

Susan Slyomovics

Revision of the author's thesis (Ph. D.). Study focuses upon the life and artistry of an illiterate professional Egyptian poet and musician, Awadallah.

Music, Ritual, and Falasha History

Kay Shelemay

Extensive textual and musical transcriptions of prayers recorded during rituals in Beta Israel prayerhouse.